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Logical Deduction
1.Statements :No women teacher can play. Some women teachers are athletes.

Conclusions :
I. Male athletes can play.
II. Some athletes can play.

Answer:Option 1

Explanation:

Solution:
Since one premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative. So, neither conclusion follows.

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2.Statements :All bags are cakes. All lamps are cakes.

Conclusions :
I. Some lamps are bags.
II. No lamp is bag.

Answer:Option 1

Explanation:

Solution:
Since the middle term 'cakes' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows. However, I and II involve only the extreme terms and form a complementary pair. So, either I or II follows.

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3.Statements :All mangoes are golden in colour. No golden-coloured things are cheap.

Conclusions :
I. All mangoes are cheap.
II. Golden-coloured mangoes are not cheap.

Answer:Option 1

Explanation:

Solution:
Clearly, the conclusion must be universal negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'No mango is cheap'. Since all mangoes are golden in colour, we may substitute 'mangoes' with 'golden-coloured mangoes'. Thus, II follows.

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4.Statements :Some doctors are fools. Some fools are rich.

Conclusions :
I. Some doctors are rich
II. Some rich are doctors.

Answer:Option 1

Explanation:

Solution:
Since both the premises are particular, no definite conclusion follows.

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5.Statements :All roads are waters. Some waters are boats.

Conclusions :
I. Some boats are roads.
II. All waters are boats.

Answer:Option 1

Explanation:

Solution:
The first premise is A type and distributes the subject. So, the middle term 'waters' which forms its predicate, is not distributed. The second premise is I type and does not distribute either subject or predicate. So, the middle term 'waters' forming its subject is not distributed. Since the middle term is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.

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6.Statements :No bat is ball. No ball is wicket.

Conclusions :
I. No bat is wicket.
II. All wickets are bats.

Answer:Option 1

Explanation:

Solution:
Since both the premises are negative, no definite conclusion follows.

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7.Statements :All flowers are trees. No fruit is tree.

Conclusions :
I. No fruit is flower.
II. Some trees are flowers.

Answer:Option 1

Explanation:

Solution:
As discussed above, the conclusion must be universal negative and should not contain the middle term. So, it follows that 'No flower is fruit'. I is the converse of this conclusion and thus it follows. II is the converse of the first premise and so it also holds.

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8.Statements :All roads are poles. No pole is a house.

Conclusions :
I. Some roads are houses.
II. Some houses are poles.

Answer:Option 1

Explanation:

Solution:
Since both the premises are universal and one premise is negative, the conclusion must be universal negative. So, neither I nor II follows.

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9.Statements :All fish are tortoise. No tortoise is a crocodile.

Conclusions :
I. No crocodile is a fish.
II. No fish is a crocodile.

Answer:Option 1

Explanation:

Solution:
Since both the premises are universal and one premise is negative, the conclusion must be universal negative. Also, the conclusion should not contain the middle term. So, II follows; I is the converse of II and thus it also holds.

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10.Statements :Some dedicated souls are angels. All social workers are angels.

Conclusions :
I. Some dedicated souls are social workers.
II. Some social workers are dedicated souls.

Answer:Option 1

Explanation:

Solution:
The first premise is an I type proposition. So, the middle term 'angels' forming the predicate is not distributed. The second premise is an A type proposition. So, the middle term 'angels' forming the predicate is not distributed. Since the middle term is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.

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