According to the Water Stress Index 2019, formulated by London-based risk analytics firm Verisk Maplecroft, India is the 46th highest risk country in the world. It measured the water consumption rates of households, industries and farm sectors and the available resources in rivers, lakes and streams and plotted the index with projected population growth trends to rank the cities facing the biggest threat to their water resources. Chennai is the "tip of the iceberg" for India's water-stressed cities. 11 out of India's 20 largest cities face an 'extreme risk' of water stress and 7 are in the 'high risk' category. Delhi, Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Nashik, Jaipur, Ahmedabad and Indore are among the cities facing 'extreme risk'. Bengaluru and Surat are experiencing the greatest surge in demand for water and are most at risk of facing scarcity. Chennai and Delhi are also extremely vulnerable. India is rated 'high risk' in the Climate Change Vulnerability Index. The effects of climate change like an 'extended dry season' would deteriorate water stress situation in Indian cities and many Indian cities are projected to experience a higher number of consecutive drought days when precipitation is less than 1 mm.